Insomnia risk factors, complications and prevention

Insomnia Risk Factors, Complications and Prevention


Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder characterized by difficulty initiating sleep, maintaining sleep continuity, or poor sleep quality. The symptoms are present even when adequate sleep opportunities and conditions are available, resulting in inadequate performance during the day. Insomnia can adversely affect health, quality of life, academic performance, increase the risk of motor vehicle accidents, decrease productivity at work, irritability, and increase sleepiness throughout the day. Let’s take a look at insomnia risk factors, complications and prevention.

Risk Factors

There are several risk factors that can increase a person’s likelihood of developing insomnia. Some of these risk factors include:

  1. Age: Insomnia is more common in older adults, especially those over the age of 60.
  2. Gender: Insomnia is more common in women than in men, although the reasons for this are not entirely understood.
  3. Stressful life events: Trauma, major life changes, such as a death of a loved one, or a significant work or financial stress can increase the risk of insomnia.
  4. Mental health conditions: People with conditions such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and bipolar disorder are at an increased risk of developing insomnia.
  5. Chronic health conditions: People with chronic health conditions, such as chronic pain, asthma, and heart disease, are at an increased risk of developing insomnia.
  6. Medications: Some medications, including antidepressants, blood pressure medications, and steroids, can increase the risk of insomnia.
  7. Substances: Caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol can all disrupt sleep patterns and increase the risk of insomnia.
  8. Shift work: Working night shifts or rotating shifts can disrupt a person’s natural sleep-wake cycle and increase the risk of insomnia.
  9. Poor sleep habits: Irregular or inadequate sleep schedule, using electronic devices in the bedroom, or having an uncomfortable bed can also be a risk factor. (Also read; the importance of getting enough sleep)

It’s important to note that not all risk factors will lead to insomnia, but they can make individuals more susceptible to developing the disorder. If you have any concerns regarding your sleep, it’s important to speak with a healthcare professional to determine the best course of action.


Insomnia can have a number of negative effects on a person’s physical and mental health, which can lead to complications if left untreated. There are several possible complications associated with insomnia, including:

  1. Daytime fatigue: Insomnia can cause fatigue, grogginess, and a general lack of energy during the day, making it difficult to focus and complete daily tasks. This can lead to problems at work or school, and can increase the risk of accidents, particularly when operating heavy machinery or driving.
  2. Cognitive impairment: Insomnia can affect cognitive function, making it difficult to focus, pay attention, and remember things. Decisions, memory, and learning can be impaired as a result.
  3. Mental health: Insomnia is a common symptom of conditions such as anxiety and depression, and can also make these conditions more severe. Additionally, studies have shown that insomnia is a risk factor for developing mood disorders.
  4. Medical conditions: Chronic insomnia can have a negative effect on overall health and increase the risk of developing other medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
  5. Substance use: People with insomnia may resort to using alcohol or other substances to help them sleep, which can lead to substance abuse and addiction.
  6. Increased risk of accidents: Insomnia can impair a person’s ability to function properly during the day, which can increase the risk of accidents, especially if the individual is doing a task that requires attention, such as driving.
  7. Adverse reactions to medications: Taking sleep medication for long periods of time can lead to dependence or tolerance and has side effects.

It’s pertinent to note that insomnia can have a significant impact on a person’s quality of life. Therefore, it’s wise to seek help from a healthcare professional if you are experiencing difficulty sleeping. They can help to identify the underlying cause of insomnia and develop a treatment plan to alleviate the symptoms and prevent complications.


There are several things you can do to help prevent insomnia and ensure a good night’s sleep. Some tips that may help include:

  1. Stick to a regular sleep schedule: Try to go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, even on weekends, to help regulate your body’s natural sleep-wake cycle.
  2. Create a comfortable sleep environment: Keep your bedroom dark, quiet, and at a comfortable temperature. Use a comfortable mattress and pillows, and consider using earplugs or a white noise machine to block out any external noise.
  3. Relax before bed: Engage in relaxing activities such as reading, listening to music, or taking a warm bath before bed. Avoid activities that can be stimulating, such as watching TV or using the computer, for at least an hour before getting to sleep.
  4. Exercise regularly: Regular physical activity can promote better sleep. Most days of the week, try to exercise moderately, such as walking briskly for 30 minutes. Avoid vigorous exercise too close to bedtime as it can make it difficult to fall asleep.
  5. Limit caffeine and nicotine: Avoid consuming caffeine, especially close to bedtime, as it can disrupt your sleep. Nicotine is also a stimulant and should be avoided in the evening.
  6. Limit alcohol and heavy meals before bedtime: Alcohol may make you feel drowsy, but it can disrupt your sleep later in the night. Heavy meals close to bedtime can also make it difficult to fall asleep.
  7. Manage stress: Try to find ways to manage stress, such as through exercise, meditation, yoga, or journaling.
  8. Consider a power-down period: An hour before bed, dim the lights, avoid screens, and do something calming like reading a book, journaling, or doing relaxation techniques. (see; health benefits of journaling)

Some people may need to try a combination of different strategies to improve their sleep. Additionally, if you have insomnia or difficulty sleeping, it is important to consult a healthcare professional. This is because they can help identify the underlying cause and suggest appropriate treatments to help alleviate your symptoms.

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